Radiographic interpretation PDF

(PDF) Radiographic Interpretation Radiographic

  1. interpretation of the changed radiographic pattern(s) require(s) a thorough background knowledge of both Anatomy and Pathology. The diagnostic process is far from infallible. In any diagnostic procedure there are four possible outcomes:- 1. True positive. The disease is present and correctly identified
  2. The Supplemental training for radiographic interpretation consists of 40 hours of training. Note: Radiographic interpretation is considered a portion of the method of radiographic testing in ISO 9712 and, as such, is not considered to be a separate method. Therefore, radiographic interpretation is not covered under ISO 9712
  3. Radiographic Interpretation Radiographic Interpretation Radiographs of Welds Radiographs of Weld
  4. Normal radiographic anatomy: There are numerous structures within the oral cavity that mimic pathologic states depending on the projection. Knowledge of normal radiographic anatomy will help avoid over interpretation. Normal alveolar bone will appear gray and relatively uniform throughout the arcade. It i
  5. ations that will appear in a General Radiologic Department. It is our hope that you, the readers, will find this manual useful in your daily routine work. We sincerely hope that it will facilitate your work, and thereby improve the treatment of your patients
  6. ed by the manufacturer. 4.1.2 Area of interest. 4.1.3 Direction of interest. 4.1.4 Feature length for evaluation (L. f). 4.1.5 Acceptance level
  7. Radiography • Radiography is used in a very wide range of applications including medicine, engineering, forensics, security, etc. •In NDT, radiography is one of the most important and widely used methods. •Radiographic testing (RT) offers a number of advantages over other NDT methods, however, one of its major disadvantages is th

anced Interpretation and Quantitative luation for d quality, sheath spacing, uniformity of llation material filling Materials Evaluation, May 2007 NDARD PRACTICES FOR ROBUST ASSURANCE . Title: Basics of Radiography Testing and Image Processing2 Author: Rolf Created Date Radiograph Interpretation - Welds. In addition to producing high quality radiographs, the radiographer must also be skilled in radiographic interpretation. Interpretation of radiographs takes place in three basic steps: (1) detection, (2) interpretation, and (3) evaluation. All of these steps make use of the radiographer's visual acuity Radiographic interpretation: 14. Interpretation : • Step by step analytical process that provides an exact idea of the clinical problem and helps to achieve the final diagnosis of any particular lesion. 15. The importance of interpretation: • Radiographic interpretation is an essential part of the diagnostic process

radiographic-interpretation.pdf - TECHNOLOGY SWI 3.2... School College of Engineering Perumon; Course Title ME 123; Uploaded By SuperHumanFlag4430. Pages 67 This preview shows page 1 out of 67 pages.. Oral Radiology - Principles & Interpretation.pdf. Ayko Nyush. Download PDF. Download Full PDF Package. This paper. A short summary of this paper. 34 Full PDFs related to this paper. Read Paper. Oral Radiology - Principles & Interpretation.pdf

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  1. Kishore Karuppaswamy | Instrumentation and Control Enginee
  2. Columbia CTL | Columbia Center for Teaching and Learnin
  3. References71 White and pharoah,principles and interpretation.IV edition,pg281-296 W&P. Ch.14. Oral and Maxillofacial Imaging. Farman and NortjeNeill Serman.2000 Dr. Parish P. Sedghizadeh. Radiographic pathology of the head and neck
  4. in industries is Radiographic Testing Interpretation Image processing for radiographic films of weld inspection F. Faramarzi and M. Motamedi W (RTI). In this way, a technician captures radiographic films of welds, then a weld interpreter starts to interpret the films and find defects visually by means of specific light (the job that an.
  5. Radiographic interpretation of pulmonary disease is a critical part of veterinary diagnostics, but can be one of the more intimidating areas of radiographic evaluation. Utilizing a good understanding of normal radiographic anatomy as well as an organized, step-by-step approach, accurate interpretation of pulmonary disease should occur
  6. View PCN Radiographic Film Interpretation Material.pdf from MNKGJUY 6755 at Helsingin yhteislyseo. PCN RADI OGRAPHI C FI LM I NTERPRETATI ON ( RTFI ) MATERI AL www.itseasyforu.com CONTENTS S.No 1 2
  7. e the worth of something. Indication is a density change appearing on a radiograph

radiographic view chosen, that a relationship exists between clinical attachment and radiographic bone height, and that radiographs can be used in all stages of periodontal care, although some decisions may be made following clinical assessment only. That thought pro-voking review, however, noted that any evidence of th An individual certified to Radiographic Interpretation Level 2 has demonstrated competence to perform NDT according to Radiographic Interpretation procedures. Within the scope of the competence defined on the certificate, Level 2 personnel may be authorised by the employer to: Select the Radiographic Interpretation technique for the test method. Principles of Radiographic Interpretation - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. radiographic-interpretation-for-the-small-animal-clinician-pdf 1/5 Downloaded from makeover.ixiacom.com on July 3, 2021 by guest [Book] Radiographic Interpretation For The Small Animal Clinician Pdf When people should go to the ebook stores, search start by shop, shelf by shelf, it is really problematic

Radiographic Interpretation for the Small Animal Clinician, 2nd Edition This book serves as a practical guide to radiographic interpretation and the imaging modalities used in small animal practice. The presentation incorporates a brief discussion of the technology of each modality, its use and application, and the decision process for using each modality. All imaging modalitie Film Interpretation - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Film Interpretation The AWS Radiographic Interpreter Certification program is based upon requirements contained within AWS B5.15:2003, Specification for the Qualification of Radiographic Interpreters, and is designed to provide evidence of the ability of individuals to properly assess welding-related indications produced on radiographic film and related media

Radiographic Anatomy and Interpretation of the Musculoskeletal System pdf 2.91Mb This manual provides an exhaustive description of radiographic normal anatomy as well as pathologic changes most frequently seen in musculoskeletal system including trauma, infections in bone and joints, metabolic, endocrine, and toxic disorders, tumours. RIT-T RADIOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION TEXTBOOK-2016 PRINTING Member Price: $123.00 Non-Member Price: $164.00 This course is designed to provide a basic foundation of knowledge for the Radiographic Interpreter (RI) and to prepare the RI for the American Welding Society's Radiographic Interpreter Certification Examinations as delineated in AWS B5.15, Specification for Qualification of.

Niedrige Preise, Riesen-Auswahl. Kostenlose Lieferung möglic Radiographic Interpretation: The Full Mouth Series and Panoramic Views Steven R. Singer, DDS srs2@columbia.edu 212.305.5674 Give a person a fish; you have fed them for today. Teach a person to fish; and you have fed them for a lifetime—Author unknown Radiographs in Diagnosis Diagnostic imaging is an integral part of th 2. Each radiographic image series must be properly arranged in its template. 3. Interpretation summary must include the following: a. All requested information. b. Complete description of radiologic findings. c. Use of differential diagnosis or radiologic impression of findings. d. Recommendations for additional and future radiographic. The Chest X-Ray: Principles of Reading 1. The bones 2. The lungs 3. The heart 4. The vessels 5. Miscellaneous such as pacemakers, catheters, etc Radiography Testing - Film Interpretation Level II Limited - 40 hours Training Course Outline SCOPE This course will prepare a candidate for performing Radiography Film Interpretation COURSE OUTLINE Module 1: RADIATION AND SAFETY Units Dosage and Health Effect

radiographic evaluation in the young patient with hip symp-toms. This paper summarizes the recommendations of the ANCHOR (Academic Network for Conservational Hip Out-comes Research) study group regarding the most important aspects of radiographic technique and image interpretation to evaluate the symptomatic, skeletally mature hip The objective of this study is to present the normal radiographic anatomy of maxillary lateral area in the peri-apical, panoramic, occlusal, cephalometric radiographs and volumetric computed tomography. Material and method. This study includes 17 images which present normal anatomy of the maxillary lateral area The textbook on Veterinary Diagnostic Radiology, 7th edition, is a universal resource covering the principles of radiographic techniques and interpretation of dogs, cats and horses. Within this bestseller, high-quality radiographic images accompany clear coverage of diagnostic radiology, ultrasound, MRI and CT The purpose of radiographic interpretation is to properly assess indications produced on radiographic media during the process of weldment or adjacent base metal evaluation. The Radiographic Interpreter must be thoroughly familiar with the process of radiography as well as the welding processes. This includes, but may not be limited to: welding.

Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques : Radiograph

Welding radiography film interpretation pdf Continue. Art of extracting maximum information from radiography image. This requires subjective judgment of the interpreter Interpretation is to explain the meaning of. Evaluating is to determine the value of something. Indication is a density change that appears on an X-ray Radiography of the Hip: Lines, Signs, and Patterns of Disease Scot E. Campbell, MD T he complex anatomy of the pelvis and the often subtle but significant radiographic findings can be challenging to the radiologist. A sound understanding of the standard radiographic techniques, normal anatomy, and patterns o

Radiographic interpretation - SlideShar

  1. Written specifically for dentists, White and Pharoah's Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation 8 th Edition incorporates over 1,500 high-quality radiographic images and illustrations to demonstrate core concepts and essential principles and techniques of oral and maxillofacial radiology. The new edition of this bestselling book delivers with state-of-the-art information on oral.
  2. g radiographic techniques. The booklet has been published in a number of languages and has been very much in demand
  3. ed an opacity. It is single, limited, irregular shape and unclear borders, without displacement of mediastinum The structure of it is heterogeneous
  4. Undergraduate Interpretation Form, the student will review with radiology faculty on a one-to one basis. A grade will be given in . Axium. For the assignment, the write up will be submitted via canvas. Grade weights: It is expected that students will maintain competency in radiographic technique and interpretation

1. Achieve an understanding of radiographic testing (RT) basics, including X-ray and gamma radiography. 2. Understand the variables in the process of radiography. 3. Understand how sensitivity is achieved, controlled, and optimized in radiography. 4. Achieve an understanding of radiographic interpretation. 5. Recognize the advantages and. Acquisition and interpretation of equine skull radiographs is notoriously difficult. However, by dividing the skull into anatomic regions and considering the radiographic appearance of various pathologic changes that occur in these regions, the process of evaluation becomes simpler. This report aims to review acquisition of skull radiographs and radiographic appearance of various diseases in.

Agfa Radiographic Film - Film Radiography - Radiography Acces PDF Agfa Rt Film Interpretation Guide edition practical analytics, pledged the secret life of sororities alexandra robbins, plumbing engineering services design guide, practical chemistry for bsc i ii iii year students of a, prentice hall world explorer people places and cultures. Request for Radiographic Interpretation University of Missouri Veterinary Health Center - Radiographic Referral Service 900 East Campus Drive Phone: 573-882-585 The PDF file of the first IOM Guideline on Screening CXR interpretation and Radiographic Technique'' was released in December 2014. This published document is the revised version. The changes made from the first PDF file released include

820 Jorie Blvd., Suite 200 Oak Brook, IL 60523-2251 U.S. & Canada: 1-877-776-2636 Outside U.S. & Canada: 1-630-571-787 Interpretation of pathology on panoramic radiographs. The panoramic radiograph is especially useful when examining regions of the jaws which cannot be imaged with intraoral radiographs, such as the temporomandibular joints and third molar regions radiographic interpretation course is designed purely for the interpretation of the resultant radiographic image. However, to understand the principles of image formation, sensitivity and correct techniques the general theory syllabus is the same for both courses. The two sectors of the Radiographic Testing examination that are NOT required for. About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new features Press Copyright Contact us Creators. I created this video with the YouTube Video Editor (http://www.youtube.com/editor

The purpose of radiographic interpretation is to properly assess indications produced on radiographic media during the process of evaluating weldments or adjacent base metal. Radiographic interpreters must be thoroughly familiar with all aspects of the process of radiography, as well as the welding and casting process Download PDF Exercises in Oral Radiology and Interpretation. First and important I would like to welcome Dr. Craig Miller as my new coauthor of this book. i have been very carefully related to Craig for close to 30 years, consisting of all five versions of our other textbook, shade Atlas of common Oral Lesions. without his ideas and hard work. 13. RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING ACCEPTANCE STANDARD. Refer to ASME Sec VIII, Div. I . a) Butt welded joints surfaces shall be sufficiently free from coarse ripples ,grooves , overlaps and abrupt ridges and valleys to permit proper interpretation of radiographic and the required non-destructive examinations Chest imaging is an important tool in managing critically ill patients. Basic chest radiology is still used to quickly detect abnormalities in the chest. Critical care nurses are often the ones who first read the radiologist's report of chest radiograph results and provide their interpretation to a tools the radiographic Interpretation became more precise, and even increased this capability of diagnosis and radiographic analysis, for example, enabling the visualization of small carious lesions, excess / lack of material restorers, caries recurrence, etc. (Figure 3). The Selection of Patients for X-Ray Examination, US Foo

Radiographic interpretation is followed by sets of multiple-choice questions focused on key areas of radiograph. The questions provide additional valuable guidance to the student. Each of the sessions is closed by an open discussion on the correct answers and reporting. This open discussion environment provides additional learning outcomes. Introduction to Film Interpretation of Weldments Approved for use beginning: 2015-2016 Approved for use beginning: 2020-2021 Page 6 Radiographic Film Interpretation of Weldments Training Program: Student Program Study Kit- Radiography Level I (RT), CD-ROM. NDT Demonstration Kit Chuck Heller's NDT Classroom, Online NDT Training 1.2 This reference radiograph provides a series of test targets to provide a vehicle for the evaluation of spatial resolution, density contrast sensitivity, dynamic range, and spatial linearity, as well as other aspects of a digitization system. The test targets are suitable for evaluating a digitization system with a spatial resolution down to ∼ 1/1000 in. (25 micrometres (μm)), a density.

Effective Radiographic Interpretation. Refining their diagnostic skills and knowledge of anatomy will help clinicians recognize the most common variations in normal radiographs — as well as the most frequently encountered incidental findings. By Mitzi J. Palazzolo, DDS, MS, Maj, USAF, DC, Shawneen M. Gonzalez, DDS, MS and Teresa Reeves, DDS. The scope of diagnostic imaging in small animal medicine basic radiologic physical principles special studies - contrast procedures the extremities and pelvis the joints the skull the spine the chest the heart the abdomen - general - peritoneal cavity, hernias, liver, spleen, pancreas, abdominal masses, diaphragm the abdomen - alimentary tract, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small bowel, large. Dental Radiology Quiz-Radiographic Interpretation of Anatomic Structures study guide by caitlinmathis96 includes 42 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades This approach has been shown to be ineffective in correct interpretation of radiographic abnormalities. However, it has been found that understanding the basic disease mechanism underlying the changes that each type of abnormality can render in the diagnostic image is more effective in enhancing a clinician's diagnostic accuracy. The terms.


Radiographic Pathology for Technologists, 6th Edition [PDF]- Kowalczyk, Nina. 62 MB PDF Previous Article Rare Tumors and Tumor-like Conditions in Urological Pathology (2015) [PDF] Next Article Pediatric Malignancies Pathology and Imaging 2015 [PDF] 2 Comments Rapid Interpretation of EKG Sixth Edition [PDF] (11,728) Download All. Radiograph Interpretation - Castings The major objective of radiographic testing of castings is the disclosure of defects that adversely affect the strength of the product. Castings are a product form that often receive radiographic inspection since many of the defects produced by the casting process are volumetric in nature, and are thus. Dental Radiograph Interpretation Stephen Juriga DVM, DAVDC . The interpretation of dental radiographs is similar to the systematic approach that we employ with standard radiography in our general practice. This document will review normal and abnormal radiographic anatomy of the tooth, supporting tissues, bone and regional anatomy s radiographic views is an essential prerequisite to accurate radiological interpretation of the navicular bone. This requires appropriate preparation of the foot, careful attention to limb position and to both centring and direction of the x-ray beam, according to hoof capsule conformation. Artefacts are easily created

(PDF) Oral Radiology - Principles & Interpretation

Radiography for Medical Students Kenneth L. Pierce, M.D. Dept of Radiology Loyola University Medical Center. 2 Physics • Xray imaging • Shoot electrons at Interpretation of Abdominal Film • Gas Pattern • Calcification • Soft tissue •Bones • Everything else. 27 Gas Patter Radiographic Sensitivity in Industrial Radiographic Testing With X-Ray Films By: Tee Kim-Tsew (Technical Manager, Lott Inspection Sdn. Bhd., Malaysia ASNT and ACCP Level III) Abstract. Radiographic Testing (RT) is widely used in industries, at airport for security checks, medical applications etc. to detect anomalies in materials and human bodies Radiographic Lung Patterns. Systematic approach heart mediastinum vessels lungs pleural space thoracic wall diaphragm/abdomen. Lung pathology Most cause INCREASED OPACITY patterns INTERSTITIAL ALVEOLAR BRONCHIAL VASCULAR NODULAR Some cause DECREASED OPACITY emphysema, air trapping hypoperfusion PTE

PCN Radiographic Film Interpretation Material - PCN RADI

radiographic guidelines. There are several health care provider organizations that have radiographic privileges, and who have published information on radiographic utilization and protocols of radiographic procedures: 1. American College of Chiropractic Radiologists (ACCR),29,30 2. Chiropractic College of Radiologists of Canada (CCRC),51,52 3 Abstract: Accurate and consistent radiographic interpretation among clinical instructors is needed for assessment of teaching, student performance, and patient care. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if the method of radiographic viewing affects accuracy and consistency of instructors' determinations of bone loss


9.2. Evaluation of radiographic quality 244 9.3. Nature of discontinuities in radiography 246 9.4. Interpretation of radiographic images 247 10. CODES AND STANDARDS 257 10.1. Quality and standardisation 257 10.2. Introduction to NDT codes and standards 268 10.3. Comparison of some important radiographic testing standards 269 10.4 general principles of radiographic interpretation, and learning to recognize the typical radiographic appearance of common pathologies affecting the equine head, accurate evaluation of equine skull radiographs becomes less daunting. 2. Radiographic Technique Portable x-ray machines and standard plates are sufficient for most skull radiographs Interpretation and usage of NDT codes and procedures Radiographic testing in accordance with codes and procedures Typical defects and their origins , Quality, functionality checks System calibration and verification Safety and environmental considerations Interpret, evaluate and report Practical Skills Selection of techniqu A typical radiographic x-ray beam in ab-dominal radiography will have an x-ray tube voltage of 80 kV and a total filtration of about 3 mm of aluminum. The x-ray beam quality is likely to be also 3 mm of aluminum, which is easily confused with the filtration because they are often quantitatively very similar. Beam qualities in mammography are ver interpretation of radiographic and other nondestructive examinations when nondestructive examinations are required. In those cases where there is a question regarding the surface condition on the interpretation of a radiographic film, the film shall be compared to the actual weld surface for interpretation and determination of acceptability

Radiographs in periodontal disease diagnosis and managemen

MINISYMPOSIUM: IMAGING OF CHILDHOOD TUBERCULOSIS Standardized radiographic interpretation of thoracic tuberculosis in children Nathan David P. Concepcion1,2 & Bernard F. Laya1,2 & Savvas Andronikou3 & Pedro A. N. Daltro4 & Marion O. Sanchez5 & Jacqueline Austine U. Uy1 & Timothy Reynold U. Lim2 Received: 27 January 2017/Accepted: 9 April 2017/Published online: 26 August 201 Radiographic Interpretation For The Small Animal Clinician Author: mail.williamson.edu-2021-06-29T00:00:00+00:01 Subject: Radiographic Interpretation For The Small Animal Clinician Keywords: radiographic, interpretation, for, the, small, animal, clinician Created Date: 6/29/2021 5:06:38 A Radiography (X-rays) is a technique for generating and recording an x-ray pattern for the purpose of providing the user with a static image(s) after termination of the exposure. During a radiographic procedure, an x-ray beam is passed through the body. A portion of the x-ray i This highly organized textbook provides the reader with a comprehensive reference source on the interpretation of dental radiographs. Includes such features as a logical step-by-step approach to interpretation, excellent illustrations, numerous line drawings as well as outstanding radiograph reproductions, and quiz questions, key words, and objectives in every chapter

Radiopaque dental impression method for radiographic interpretation, digital alignment, and surgical guide fabrication for dental implant placement Michael D. Scherer, DMD, MSa and Hyun Ki Roh, DDS, PhDb Radiographic visualization of the restorative space, tooth position, and bone level is a necessary step in the treat-ment sequence and plannin 5de ruin T, et al. Radiographic assessment of the progression of osteoarthritis in the contralateral stifle joint of dogs with a ruptured cranial cruciate ligament. Vet. Rec. 2007; 161: 745-750. 6Widmer WR. et al. Radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging of the stifle joint in experimental osteoarthritis of dogs. Vet. Radiol. Ultrasound 1994 interpretation of programmable shunt valve settings. Four major manufacturers of programmable shunts agreed to participate in this study. Each provided radiographic images and legends for their appropriate interpretation. Issues of MR imaging compatibility for each valve are also discussed Welcome to our Radiographic Film Interpretation course. This will help prepare you for the Level II or III exams and work situations. Knowledge is Power and understanding the RT Process for the proper interpretation of radiographs can mean the difference between acceptable and catastrophic results. This is a 40 hour course/class and meets the requirements for theory training by AWS

radiographic interpretation training courses NDT Level

Malocclusion, normocclusion, radiography, assessment, long-term prognosis, staging Summary Objective: Objective interpretation of dental disease in rabbits, guinea pigs and chinchillas with the use of anatomical reference lines. Mate - rial and methods: Skull radiographs (laterolateral and dorsoventra File:Radiographic Interpretation ASNT Handbook.pdf. Size of this JPG preview of this PDF file: 800 × 566 pixels. Other resolutions: 320 × 226 pixels | 640 × 453 pixels | 1,024 × 724 pixels | 1,280 × 905 pixels | 1,752 × 1,239 pixels Radiographic Interpretation for the Dental Hygienist ( Review 03 ) This highly organized textbook provides the reader with a comprehensive reference source on the interpretation of dental radiographs. Includes such features as a logical step-by-step approach to interpretation, excellent illustrations, numerous line drawings as well as. The guidelines for prescribing radiographic examinations will be presented and discussed to assist dentists in the appropriate selection of patients for radiographic examinations. Clinicians must use clinical judgment to determine the type, frequency, and extent of each radiographic examination. Radiographic imaging should be individualized for. Radiographic Techniques and Interpretation of the Acute Abdomen Matthew G. Bischoff, DVM Radiography is a familiar and available imaging modality for the evaluation of patients with acute abdominal distress. Potential causes for acute abdominal distress include the hepatobiliary system, spleen, urogenital tract, and gastrointestinal tract

Radiographic Interpretation What s Normal? Bucky Boaz, ARNP Cervical Spine (Lateral) Anterior arch of the atlas Dens of axis Posterior arch of the atlas - A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 461656-MzEw RADIOGRAPHY TESTING - FILM INTERPRETATION LEVEL II LIMITED +971 2 449 6000 +971 50 412 3294 info@boostuae.com BOOSTUAE.COM BLOG.BOOSTUAE.COM Duration: Five Days Location: TBD Date: TBD This course will prepare a candidate for performing Radiography Film Interpretation A Teacher S Guide To Atlas Of Radiographic Interpretation In Small Animals PDF Download Free Edition Of George Orwell S 1984. Author by : Read book Atlas Of Radiographic Interpretation In Small Animals Online Free and download other ebooks. Discover free books by George Orwell, who are publishing Novels, Thriller, Poems. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic aspects of pulpal and periradicular tissue for patient undergoes endodontic treatment. Patient and method: The present study was limited to patients who treated endodontically by postgraduate students of Conservative Department, School of Dentistry/Faculty of Medical Sciences between January 2014 to Februar Unique in its depth and breadth of coverage, Radiographic Interpretation for the Dental Hygienist uses line drawings and dental radiographs to illustrate restorations, dental materials and foreign objects, dental caries, periodontal disease, trauma, pulpal and periapical lesions and more. Also covers film mounting and viewing, film exposure. Radiographic images of normal or standard prototypical animals are supplemented by images of non-standard subjects exhibiting breed-specific differences, physiologic variants, or common congenital malformations.; Images that depict a wider range of normal — such as images that detail the natural growth and aging characteristics of normal pediatric and senior animals — prevents clinical.