Pectus excavatum exercises PDF

Pectus Excavatum Exercise Program Exercise #1: Begin . immediately. after surgery. Chest Expansion- Deep breathing with breath holding. Do this exercise every morning and evening. 1. Stand up straight with your shoulders back. Breathe in as deeply as possible and hold your breath for 10 seconds. 2. Repeat 20 times. Exercise #2: Begin. PECTUS EXCAVATUM EXERCISE INSTRUCTIONS Patients with Pectus Excavatum frequently have a posture, which accentuates the defect. The typical Pectus posture includes forward sloping shoulders, a kyphotic spine (curved forward) and a protuberant abdomen. This posture undoubtly makes the Pectus look worse than it is Therapeutic exercises to improve pectus excavatum deformity In theory, the main question in managing pectus excavatum is how to pull the sunken anterior chest wall outward and forward. The inspiratory muscles that help in pulling up the chest wall should be considered. Thi Pectus Exercises Background Children with pectus excavatum/carinatum often have a posture which makes the chest appear worse. The typical pectus posture includes forward sloping shoulders and a belly that sticks out. A mild pectus may appear to be severe simply because the posture is so poor

Pectus Excavatum . What is pectus excavatum? Pectus excavatum (peck -tuss ex-kuh-vaw-tum) is a breastbone (sternum) and rib cartilage deformity that results in a dent in the chest. It is also called sunken or funnel chest. Most of the time, this indentation is in the lower half of the sternum, and can range from mild to severe Make sure to keep your back straight and maintain a gentle chin tuck throughout the exercise. Date printed: 09/25/2020 Page 2 Disclaimer: This program provides exercises related to your condition that you can perform at home. As there is a risk of injury with any activity, use caution when performing exercises

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Pectus Excavatum (Nuss) v2.0: Preoperative Assessment 1. The optimal timing for surgery for Pectus Excavatum repair is 13-17 years of age while the chest wall is still malleable (adults (over 21) will need formal approval). However, repair at a younger age is appropriate in the setting of severe cardiac or pulmonary compression with associate Pectus excavatum causes the chest to appear sunken. While exercise might seem daunting, it can both relieve symptoms and improve appearance. The causes of pectus excavatum aren't completely clear pectus excavatum repair surgery in the pediatric patient. Pectus Excavatum Pectus excavatum (PE), or funnel chest, is a deformity of the chest wall characterized by a sternal depression typically beginning over the midportion of the manubrium and progressing inward through the xiphoid process. The deformity may be symmetric or asymmetric [1,2] • Deep breathing exercises as prescribed by your doctor • Moderate exercise is encouraged after the first six weeks of recovery Before starting any exercise routine, please consult your surgeon or physician Before and after illustration of the minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum. CT Scan of a deformity with a Hallard index of 3.5 Breathing exercises for pectus excavatum won't make your deformity mysteriously disappear as some people claim. They aren't as effective as the vacuum bell therapy, the special pectus excavatum exercises, or the braces.. However, they will help you in the flattening of the chest, and in improving your restricted breathing patterns

Pectus Excavatum Exercises: Improve Strengt

  1. g. Thankfully, there is a
  2. function before and one year after operation for pectus excavatum. Journal of Thoracic Cardiovascular Surgery (1994) 107: 1403-1409. • Morshius, W., Folgering, H., et al. Pulmonary function befor
  3. e the effect of pectus excavatum on ventilatory and cardiovascular responses to incremental exercise in physically active patients
  4. Best Chest Exercises For Pectus Excavatum. #1 Incline Push Ups. This is one of the best chest exercises for pectus excavatum in our list. This exercise will help you to fix pectus excavatum within a short time. However, this is also important to do the exercise properly. When you will do the incline push ups, it will help to activate your core.
  5. / session and 3 sessions / week for 6 weeks
  6. Pectus excavatum (PE) is a posterior depression of the sternum and adjacent costal cartilages and is frequently seen by primary care providers. PE accounts for >90% of congenital chest wall deformities. Patients with PE are often dismissed by physicians as having an inconsequential problem; however, it can be more than a cosmetic deformity. Severe cases can cause cardiopulmonary impairment and.

What is pectus . Surgery Pavilion at University of • There may also be emoti. This handout is for patients who are having a modified Ravitch procedure to repair a condition called pectus excavatum. excavatum? The pectus is the chest wall. It is made of the breastbone (sternum), ribs, cartilage, and muscles. These structures protect the heart Pectus excavatum (PEx) is the most common congenital anomaly of the chest wall and accounts for 90% of anterior chest wall dis- orders [1]. It is characterized by posterior displacement of the inferior part of the sternum and prominence of the costochondral junc In some people, the depth of the indentation worsens in early adolescence and can continue to worsen into adulthood. In severe cases of pectus excavatum, the breastbone may compress the lungs and heart. Signs and symptoms may include: Decreased exercise tolerance. Rapid heartbeat or heart palpitations. Recurrent respiratory infections It is hard to overstate teenagers and those with pectus excavatum, but during the importance of the coordinating study nurses at each exercise found lower cardiac indices in the latter.13 We center in carrying out such studies. measured the oxygen pulse during peak or maximum Internet-based data collection greatly facilitates the exercise and.

Top 6 Pectus Excavatum Breathing Exercises You Should D

Ventilatory and Cardiovascular Responses to Exercise in

Introduction. Pectus excavatum is the most common congenital deformity of the chest wall, accounting for 90% of all congenital chest wall abnormalities. 1 The condition has been associated with symptoms such as exercise intolerance and chest pain on exertion, as well as with the presence of restrictive lung defect on pulmonary function testing, although most patients tend to be asymptomatic AlaskaPediatric!Surgery! Patient!InformationSheet:! Pectus!Excavatum! Definition(Pectus'excavatum'or'sunkenchest'is'a'depressioninthe'chest.'The. Pectus excavatum is a congenital defect that causes the chest wall to appear sunken. The condition is also known as funnel chest, and can in many instances be corrected by means of laparoscopic surgery. In most people funnel chest (pectus excavatum) presents before the age of one, but in some cases it does not become apparent until the onset o

to an exercise and posture program as described in the accompanying information sheet. We reserve surgical correction for those patients with moderate to severe (deep) defects. The pectus excavatum defect rarely causes significant physical symptoms and therefore the main indication to perform surgical correction is for altered body image. What is Pectus Excavatum? Pectus excavatum is a condition where the breast bone (sternum) is sunken so that the middle of the chest looks caved in instead of being level with the ribs. This is usually genetic and seems to run in families. Pectus excavatum affects about one in 1,000 children and is four times as common in boys as it is in. the order of 80% to 85% of average values for the overall population.1-4 Most patients with pectus excavatum do not complain of symptoms in the resting state, but report symptoms with exercise. If the decrease in pulmonary function were caused by the pectus excavatum deformity, then the decrease in functio

5 Amazing Chest Exercises For Pectus Excavatum - FitnessPurit

Pectus excavatum is a congenital chest wall deformity in which the sternum is depressed inward and the adjacent cartilage may be fused, deformed or rotated. Pectus excavatum is most frequently recognized in early childhood. Rapid growth in adolescence may increase the severity of the depression until skeletal maturity is reached There are several ways to treat Pectus Excavatum directly. The Nuss Procedure and Ravitch Technique are the most well known surgery options, and a Vacuum Bell is another less invasive option. (For a detailed vacuum bell plan, check out the book linked below) Certain exercises, eg deep-breathing & breath holding, as well as chest & back. You can read more about exercise for pectus excavatum in our guide Pectus excavatum exercise: the natural alternative to surgery for some patients. Surgery for pectus excavatum. While mild symptoms can be treated with natural remedies such as exercise, a pectus excavatum patient with severe pectus deformity can choose a surgical procedure

Yoga For Pectus Excavatum Breathing Respiratory Syste

Pectus excavatum is an abnormal development of the rib cage in which the sternum (breastbone) grows inward, resulting in a noticeable and sometimes severe indentation of the chest wall. Also known as sunken chest or funnel chest, pectus excavatum can be corrected with the minimally invasive surgical technique called the Nuss. PURPOSE Uncertainty exists as to whether pectus excavatum causes true physiologic impairments to exercise performance as opposed to lack of fitness due to reluctance to exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of pectus excavatum on ventilatory and cardiovascular responses to incremental exercise in physically active patients Pectus excavatum, pectus carinatum and other forms of thoracic deformities A. K. Saxena Department of Pediatric Surgical University Medical Centre, Münster, Germany the efficiency of breathing at maximal exercise improves significantly after operation. KEY WORDS: Pectus excavatum, Pectus carinatum, Congenital chest wall deformities. Pectus Excavatum: Posterior depression of the sternum and adjacent costal. Reconstructive Surgery: Reconstructive surgery is covered to correct or repair abnormal structures of the body caused by congenital defects, developmental abnormalities, trauma, infection, tumors or disease

Current Management of Pectus Excavatum: A Review and

Pectus excavatum is the most common chest wall deformity of children, occurring in approximately one in every 700 births. Patients seek surgical repair because of concerns about the appearance of the chest wall and complaints of dyspnea, especially with exercise Pectus excavatum (PE) is a chest wall deformity of variable severity and symptomatology. Existing female-specific literature highlights breast asymmetry and cosmetic reconstruction. We sought to evaluate gender differences in cardiopulmonary function. Cardiac MRIs, pulmonary function tests (PFTs), and cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPETs) were reviewed in 345 patients undergoing preoperative. Pectus excavatum is described as a deformity with the breastbone or the sternum where the sternum is sunken inwards and this makes the chest look hollow. This current article will talk about the causes, symptoms, treatments and various exercises recommended for Pectus Excavatum or the Sunken Chest Pectus Carinatum (PC); deformity in which the front wall of the chest protrudes forward. Non-invasive treatment approaches for PC include compression orthosis and exercises that target the deformity itself and concurrent postural impairment and scoliosis. In addition, the formation of muscles can help close the deformity

0:00 / 0:48. Live. •. (757) 668-6877. (757) 668-6877. Welcome to the Nuss Center, Home of the Nuss Procedure. If your child has been diagnosed with pectus excavatum, pectus carinatum, o r any other chest deformity, turn to the world-renowned experts at CHKD, trusted by the parents of thousands of our patients Pectus Excavatum is the most common congenital chest wall deformity (90%) and the documented incidence ranges between 0.1% - 0.3%. Patients with Pectus Excavatum can suffer with body image and psychological issues. Indications for surgical correction remains controversial although a decrease in exercise tolerance is frequently overlooked

Pectus excavatum rarely causes symptoms in infants or children. Respiratory and cardiac function tests are usually normal, despite the presence of the defect. The main indication for surgical repair in childhood is cosmetic. The minor corrective operation is generally ineffective. The major operation is time-consuming but safe and effective Pectus excavatum (a Latin term meaning hollowed chest) [1] is the most common congenital deformity of the anterior wall of the chest, in which several ribs and the sternum grow abnormally. This produces a caved-in or sunken appearance of the chest. [2] It can either be present at birth or not develop until puberty. Pectus excavatum is sometimes considered to be cosmetic; however, depending on. Improved cardiac function and exercise capacity following correction of pectus excavatum: a review of current literature. Ann Cardiothorac Surg 2016 ;5(5):485-492. Crossref , Medline , Google Schola Investigations []. Radio-imaging with CXR is the first-line investigation. Two clinical methods have also been developed here in assessing the severity of pectus excavatum: [] Chest cytometry involves measuring the circumference of the chest in the region of the distal third of the sternum or at the site of greatest deformity with the patient in the orthostatic position and inspiring deeply Pectus excavatum is a structural deformity of the anterior thoracic wall in which the sternum and rib cage are shaped abnormally. This produces a caved-in or sunken appearance of the chest.It can either be present at birth or develop after puberty. Pectus excavatum can impair cardiac and respiratory function and cause pain in the chest and back.. People with the condition may experience severe.

Building up muscle may help 'cover' the deformity but exercises specially to build up the pectus muscles may actually make the pectus more pronounced especially in severe pectus excavatum. As an adjunct or add-on treatment, Physical therapy may be offered to patients as part of a bracing program for pectus carinatum or pigeon chest, or post. When I was diagnosed with pectus excavatum as a teenager, my doctor advised me to start yoga. It is a workout that is recommended to anyone, regardless of age. I suggest you introduce yoga in your kid's life. After the kid progresses in the workouts, it can try harder yoga workouts with more challenging exercises The objective of present study is to assess whether the surgical repair of pectus excavatum in adults would improve exercise tolerance. Methods: A prospective study was performed to compare pulmonary and cardiovascular function at rest and at maximal exercise, before, and at 1 year after pectus excavatum repair

Pectus excavatum - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clini

Pectus excavatum chest deformities occur in more than 1 of every 1,000 births and become more apparent during the period of rapid skeletal growth in early adolescence.1 Deep inspiration commonly accentuates the pectus depression. The heart is often displaced into the left chest, and pulmonary expansion during inspiration is confined Pectus excavatum is a chest deformity where the breastbone (sternum) appears sunken. Children with mild pectus excavatum often have no other symptoms, but more severe cases can affect the heart and lungs. The sunken chest can be fixed with surgeries like the Nuss procedure or Ravitch procedure. Not all cases need surgery The cause of pectus excavatum is not known however it can run in families, with up to 25 percent of affected patients reporting chest wall abnormalities in other family members. Pectus excavatum occurs in approximately 1 out of 400-1000 children and is three to five times more common in males than females BACKGROUND Pectus excavatum is classified using the Haller Index (HI) or the Correction Index. However, no correlation between the HI and CI and cardiopulmonary impairment has been described in detail. METHODS This prospective cohort study included 99 otherwise healthy patients with pectus excavatum who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing and magnetic resonance imaging at inspiration. Historically, pectus excavatum (PE) was reported to be congenital, but in our experience only 22% are noticed in the first decade of life. Thus far, genetic studies support an autosomal recessive heritability, which coincides with only 40% of our patients having some positive family history, but is also contradictory given a constant sex ratio of 4:1 in favor of males

Introduction. Pectus excavatum (PEX) is an anterior chest wall deformity with sternal depression relative to the costal cartilages. 1 The etiology is ambiguous, with both genetic and external factors implicated. 2,3 PEX can also result in hemodynamic compromise, attributed to several mechanisms such as arrhythmias, right heart compression, and diminished lung capacity. 4,5 A recent meta. Treatment is based on how severe the pectus is. If your child has any heart problems or trouble with exercise, surgery may be done to correct a pectus excavatum. A Ravitch procedure is done by a pediatric surgeon. Surgical repair of Pectus Excavatum: Before surgery you will meet with the surgeon to talk about the risks and benefits of the surgery

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(PDF) Multicenter Study of Pectus Excavatum, Final Report

Pectus carinatum (also known as pigeon chest or keel chest) Presentation: • One-fifth as common as pectus excavatum with 4:1 male predominance. • Presents later than excavatum deformity (50 percent by 11 years of age) also worsens during puberty. • May be asymmetric or mixed with an excavatum component to the deformity Keywords: Pectus Excavatum, Surgical repair, Surgical outcome, Adults Background Pectus Excavatum (PEx) is the most common congenital chest wall deformity, accounting for over 90% of all chest wall deformities, with an incidence rate of approxi-mately 0.1%, and a male to female ratio of 4:1 [1]. Within this congenital chest wall deformity.

Pectus Excavatum is a chest deformity in which a person's breastbone is sunken into his or her chest. This book details methods that can be used to improve the condition through correcting one's posture, daily stretching, strength training, usage of a device known as the vacuum bell, and breath training.Every method provided in the book is something the author himself has used to improve his. Pectus excavatum (PE) is a common disorder of the chest wall that affects 1 in 500 of the general population. Affected individuals have cosmetic and, less commonly, cardiopulmonary consequences that typically present during the adolescent years. The latter is appreciated only in those with severe phenotypes, especially if associated with a. Background: Pectus excavatum (PE) is the most common anomaly of the anterior chest wall. Prior PE was corrected by a modified Ravitch operation, but since Nuss published his minimal technique in 1998, most surgeons have preferred this technique 754.81 (Pectus excavatum). 754.82 (Pectus carinatum). All pectus excavatum/carinatum procedures require PA. A pectus excavatum/carinatum procedure that does not meet the PA approval criteria is considered a noncovered service. Any charges related to the noncovered pectus excavatum/carinatum procedure will not be reimbursed

Pectus Excavatum - SlideShar

  1. pectus excavatum exercises (fix it without surgery!). here, we present the soave procedure for hirschsprung's disease. you are also welcomed to visit my blogger for more pectus excavatum exercises (fix it without surgery!). in this video riley byrne breaks down step by step exactly how to fix pectus without surgery want to
  2. pectus excavatum have a lower quality of life because of cosmetic issues that can lead to significant psychosocial impact, particularly among children and young adults, and can have impaired pulmonary functional test re-sults [1-3]. Moreover, pectus excavatum has recently been related to decreased exercise
  3. BACKGROUND. Pectus excavatum is a relatively common congenital deformity of the chest wall, with an incidence of approximately one in every 300 to 400 Caucasian male births. 1 This condition is more common than Down syndrome, which occurs one in every 600 to 1,000 births. 2 Although the pathogenesis of pectus excavatum remains unclear, investigators have hypothesized that the deformity results.

FLATTEN YOUR CHEST - Exercises and - Pectus Blo

May 13, 2018 - For Pectus Excavatum sufferers, the sunken chest appearance is further emphasised by poor posture due to weak and tight chest muscles associated with the condition therefore correcting Posture through stretching is important for fixing Pectus Excavatum A 48-year-old man with severe pectus excavatum presented with incapacitating supraventricular tachycardia, paroxysmal in nature and invariably provoked by exercise. During mild supine leg exercise on a bicycle ergometer an abnormal increase in right heart pressures, particularly in the right atrium. Background Pectus excavatum, the most common chest wall deformity in children, accounts for nearly 90% of congenital malformations of chest wall. Initially, both parents and doctors paid more attention to the influence of this deformity on patient appearance and psychology. Following deeper studies of pectus excavatum, researchers found that it also affected cardiac functions

Home Remedies/Best Exercises/Activities For Pectus Carinatu

Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the results of a 10-year experience with a minimally invasive operation that requires neither cartilage incision nor resection for correction of pectus excavatum. Methods: From 1987 to 1996, 148 patients were evaluated for chest wall deformity. Fifty of 127 patients suffering from pectus excavatum were selected for surgical correction The extent to which anteroposterior chest compression imposed by a pectus excavatum deformity can limit exercise capacity remains controversial. 1 Moreover, the means by which such a restriction of fitness might occur—anatomic, physiologic, or psychological—is unclear. The question has particular clinical significance because indications for surgical intervention may depend on potential.

Funnel chest or pectus excavatum (PE) is a chest wall deformity, and its major causes include hereditary connective tissue disorders and neuromuscular diseases [1, 2]. In addition, PE is more likely to occur in the context of disorders associated with upper airway obstruction, including adenotonsillar hypertrophy and bronchomalacia [3], suggesting that these are potential causes of PE The physiologic implications of pectus excavatum (PE) have for years been debated by physicians. Most patients with PE evaluated for surgery have had symptoms, including exertional dyspnea, chest discomfort, palpitations, and exercise limitations.1,2 Other less common symptoms have included gastric fullness, dysphagia, reflux, and anxiety.1,2 In our series of more than 300 adults undergoing. Pectus excavatum is an abnormal inward curve of the breastbone. It may be visible at birth. Severe forms can put pressure on the heart and lungs. Early treatment can improve outcomes. Causes. It is not known why some children are born with this problem. It may be due to The Nuss procedure is a minimally invasive repair used to treat pectus excavatum. A bilateral thoracoscopy-assisted approach has been reported as a safe method for Nuss repair. The aim of this observational cohort study is to evaluate the application of the bilateral thoracoscopy-inspection to assist in the selection of the number of bars for correction of the pectus deformity in adolescents. Pectus excavatum is characterized by a depression of the anterior chest wall (sternum and lower costal cartilages) and is the most frequently occurring chest wall deformity. The prevalence ranges from 6.28 to 12 cases per 1000 around the world

An Extensive Guide to Pectus Excavatum Find Expert Advic

Pectus excavatum, also known as concave chest or funnel chest, is a deformity of your child's chest wall. The breastbone, or sternum, and some of the ribs grow abnormally, causing a depression in the middle of the chest. The condition is not always noticeable at birth, but is often apparent by the time a child is 2 to 3 Exercises & Physiotherapy. In conjunction with a brace, it's likely that a Cardio-Thoracic Consultant will also recommend a set of Physiotherapy based exercises that will aid the brace in correcting the deformity. These exercises will be designed to help improve posture, movement and flexibility, all of which may be impaired by pectus carinatum Pectus Excavatum is the most common chest wall deformity seen in children. PE is also called sunken chest or funnel chest. It is a abnormality of the chest characterized by depression of the lower part of the sternum (breastbone) caused by an overgrowth of cartilage between the ribs and the sternum pushing inward

Exercise improvement after pectus excavatum repair is not

Pectus excavatum is the most common congenital deformity of the anterior chest wall that, under certain conditions, may pose functional problems due to cardiopulmonary compromise and exercise intolerance. We present the case of an otherwise physically-adept 21-year-old Chinese sportsman with idiopathic pectus excavatum, whose symptoms manifested only on bearing a loaded body vest and backpack. Pectus Excavatum • Symptoms - Well tolerated in infancy and childhood - Older children : ! pain in the area of the deformed cartilages ! precordial pain after sustained exercise ! palpitations ! transient atrial arrhythmias ! may have mitral valve prolapse 7 The presented case is of a young male (aged 19 yrs) with a pectus excavatum who showed significant exercise intolerance, despite normal pulmonary function at rest, including carbon monoxide diffusing capacity. Clinical exercise testing led to a strong suspicion of a right-to-left shunt due to an abnormally wide alveolo-arterial oxygen gradient (26.4 kPa) at peak oxygen uptake, with severe. Pectus Excavatum Definition. Pectus excavatum is an abnormal inward curve of the breastbone. It may be visible at birth. Severe forms can put pressure on the heart and lungs. Early treatment can improve outcomes. Causes. It is not known why some children are born with this problem. It may be due to Pectus Excavatum (PEx) is the most common congenital chest wall deformity, accounting for over 90% of all chest wall deformities. Surgical correction is recommended because severe PEx can affect the physical and psychological development of patients. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of surgical repair of Pectus Excavatum in adults during hospital course and results after 1 year

Pectus Excavatum at Children's Mercy Kansas City

Introduction. Pectus excavatum (PE) is the most common congenital chest wall deformity, accounting for over 90% of all chest wall deformities, with an incidence rate of approximately 0.1%, and a male to female ratio of 4:1 ().Surgical correction is recommended because severe PE can affect the physical and psychological development of patients Only patients with a severe pectus excavatum deformity should be candidates for surgical repair. Mild and moderate degrees of deformity should be treated with a deep breathing and exercise program and the vacuum bell. The best age for repair is during puberty, but successful repair in adult patients (up to 70 years of age) has been reported

Pectus Excavatum — ACV ExternalPectus Excavatum ~ Girl - YouTubeInternational Medicine Category - Differential Diagnosis ofPECTUS ECUADOR - PECTUS EXCAVATUMPectus carinatum brace update #1 - YouTubeEarly Results of Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery in

Kelly RE Jr, Daniel A. Outcomes, quality of life, and long-term results after pectus repair from around the globe. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2018;27(3):170-174. Mao YZ, Tang ST, et al. Comparison of the Nuss versus Ravitch procedure for pectus excavatum repair: an updated meta-analysis. J Ped Surg. 2017;52(10):1545-1552. Obermeyer RJ, Goretsky MJ To assess cardiothoracic structure and function in patients with pectus excavatum compared with control subjects using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Thirty patients with pectus excavatum deformity (23 men, 7 women, age range: 14-67 years) underwent CMR using 1.5-Tesla scanner (Siemens) and were compared to 25 healthy controls (18 men, 7 women, age range 18-50 years) Neviere R, Benhamed L, Duva Pentiah A, et al. Pectus excavatum repair improves respiratory pump efficacy and cardiovascular function at exercise. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2013;145:605-6. Castellani C, Windhaber J, Schober PH, et al. Exercise performance testing in patients with pectus excavatum before and after Nuss procedure Pectus excavatum can range from mild to severe, and your child may or may not have symptoms related to the heart or lungs. Symptoms include: A depression of the sternal bone. Intermittent shortness of breath. Decreased endurance with exercise. Chest pain related to abnormal bone and cartilage growth. A worsening of symptoms as the child grows Pectus excavatum is the most common chest wall problem in children. Pectus excavatum occurs mostly during the early teenage years in times of rapid growth, and mostly in boys. Surgical repair may be done to fix breathing and heart problems, but it may also be done for cosmetic reasons—to make the chest look normal