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Urine physical examination ppt

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Jetzt Microsoft® PowerPoint® sichern und einzigartige Präsentationen erstellen urine analysis • Physical examination • Chemical examination • Microscopy examination 10/13/2018 2SUNIL KUMAR.P 3. Collection of urine • Done in clean container • Should be examined freshly • Best sample early morning • Culture-sterile containers are used 10/13/2018 3SUNIL KUMAR.P 4 In this chapter complete urine report will be discussed. It includes the following topics: 1- Physical examination of the urine. 2- Chemical examination of the urine including: a) Normal constituents of the urine. b) Abnormal (pathological) constituents of the urine. c) Stone analysis. 3- Microscopical examination of the urine PHYSICAL EXAMINATION OF URINE VOLUME COLOR ODOUR APPEARANCE SPECIFIC GRAVITY 9. VOLUME Normal - 1.2-2 L /day Polyuria >2000ml / day. Oliguria <500ml / day. Anuria- total suppression of urine <100 ml per day. 10

Physical and chemical examination of urine 1. Physical and Chemical examinationof Urine Dr. Himil Parikh First year resident GCS Medical college, Ahmedabad Guided by- Dr. Deepak Joshi Dr. Kalpen Patel 2. Introduction • Urine can be used to look for physical and biochemical abnormalities. • To screen for and/or to aid in diagnosis of. 826 Views Download Presentation. PHYSICAL EXAMINATION OF URINE. CHAPTER 4. Learning Objectives. Upon completing this chapter, the reader will be able to List the common terminology used to report normal urine color. Discuss the relationship of urochrome to normal urine color. Uploaded on Nov 29, 2014. Allen Johns. urine Urine examination,physical, Chemical & Microscopic evaluation Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website View and Download PowerPoint Presentations on Physical Examination Of Urine PPT. Find PowerPoint Presentations and Slides using the power of XPowerPoint.com, find free presentations research about Physical Examination Of Urine PPT

Physical examination of urine. Procedure: Collect urine into a clean vessel provided. Record colour and odour. To see the positive reaction, please use as a sample being tested the imitation of urine positive for the presence of the analyte tested (container labeled with the name of the analyte) Chemical Examination of Urine Ricki Otten MT(ASCP)SC uotten@unmc.edu Objectives: Review the objectives on page 1 and 2 of the lecture handout Objectives marked with - A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 432927-NDQy Urine can be used to look for physical and biochemical abnormalities. To screen for and/or to aid in the diagnosis of conditions such as urinary tract infections, kidney disorders, liver problems, diabetes, or other metabolic conditions, to name a few.Before proceeding for examination, the specimen must be evaluated in terms of its acceptability Physical examination of urine Procedure: Collect urine into a clean vessel provided. Record colour and odour. Measure the density (specific gravity) with urinometer. 2 Basic chemical examination of urine (proteins, glucose, ketone bodies, blood and hemoglobin, bilirubin, urobilinogen Urine Analysis These are the normal constituents and findings in the normal urine. Routine urinalysis includes: Physical character. Chemical analysis. Microscopic examination. Precautions Urine must be analyzed within one hour of collection if held at room temperature

Physical examination of urine - SlideShar

Microscopic examination of urine • Hematuria is the presence of abnormal numbers of red cells in urine due to any of several possible causes. - glomerular damage, - tumors which erode the urinary tract anywhere along its length, - kidney trauma, - urinary tract stones, - acute tubular necrosis, - upper and lower urinary tract infections, - nephrotoxins • WBC in high numbers. - Physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of urine - Involves many tests to detect and measure various compounds that pass through the urine - Also used to detect the presence of an infection in the urinary tract. Why perform a urinalysis

Routine urine examination physical, chemical and normal, abnormal constituents give detailed analysis of urine. It helps detect alterations in the composition of the urine which help in the diagnosis of many disorders, renal damage, and systemic diseases. Collection of urine Over the course of a 24-hour period, the composition and concentration. urine may range from 4.6 to 8.0 but averages around 6.0, so it is usually slightly acidic. There is no abnormal range as such, since the urine can normally vary from acid to alka-line. For this reason, it is important for the physician to cor-relate the urine pH with other information to determine whether there is a problem. Metabolic and renal. Other urine, blood, and imaging tests (eg, ultrasonography, CT, MRI) are done in specific circumstances. Ideally, after the urethral meatus is cleaned, the urine specimen is collected midstream (clean-catch specimen) during the first void of the morning; the urine should be examined immediately because delays can lead to changes in test results

Urine examination - SlideShar

  1. ation of urine is also called as the liquid biopsy of the urinary tract. Urine consists of various microscopic, insoluble, solid elements in suspension. These elements are classified as organized or unorganized. Organized substances include red blood cells, white blood cells, epithelial cells, casts, bacteria, and parasites
  2. ation. The presence or absence of hypertension or proteinuria helps to decide how extensively to pursue the diagnostic evaluation. The initial evaluation should be directed toward important and potentially life-threatening causes of.
  3. ation. A focused physical exa
  4. ation. Physical exam was normal. Urinalysis had 1 hemoglobin, no protein ; 3 Which of the following interpretations is correct? 1. The child has blood in urine and requires further evaluation ; 2. The test showed small amount of blood which is nothing to worry about ; 3. The test showed small amount of blood whic

Über 7 Millionen englische Bücher. Jetzt versandkostenfrei bestellen Physical Examination of Urine - ppt video online download. The basic examination of urine includes: • physical examination, • chemical examination The physical urine examination consists of assessment of urine color, its smell, foam and turbidity A disadvantage of this system is that the strips are insensitive to presence of urinary. The kidneys regulate the amount of water, salts and other substances in the blood.; The kidneys are fist-sized, bean shaped structures that remove nitrogenous wastes (urine) and excess salts from the blood. The ureters are tubes that carry urine from the pelvis of the kidneys to the urinary bladder.; The urinary bladder temporarily stores urine until it is released from the body Urine Specimen. Collection Ms. Sneha Sehrawat • Health is a state in which the individual has complete health in all dimensions including his physical, mental, social and spiritual. When a child or an individual is not healthy, the disease occurs and these diseases may present with certain clinical manifestations. In order for the diagnosis of a particular disease, the clinical manifestation.

Physical and chemical examination of urin

urine examination (microscopic) •Pathology represents the presence of 3 or more RBC per high power field (HPF) in a spun urine sediment •Dipstick for hemedetect 1 to 2 RBC per HPF •Dipsticks are at least as sensitive as urine sediment examination, but result in more false positive tests •Positive dipstick test needs to be confirmed wit 1. Practice the procedure for performing a physical examination of urine following the step-by-step procedure and using the worksheet. 2. Demonstrate your understanding of this lesson by: a. Completing a written examination successfully, and b. Performing the procedure for the physical exam-ination of urine satisfactorily for the instructor Physical Examination of Urine - ppt video online download 1 Physical Examination of Urine Urinalysis & Body Fluids CLS 431 2nd semester Physical Urine has hundreds of different body wastes. What you eat, drink, how much you exercise, and 9 Urine Collection Types of urine specimens: type of specimen and collection procedure are determined by..

Physical Examination: pH On a normal mixed diet the urine is usually acid, generally varying in pH between 5.5 and 8.0, with a mean of 6 in 24 hours. Acidic Urine : Diabetic ketosis, fevers. Alkaline Urine:A vegetarian diet which causes a tendency to alkalosis. It may also be grossly increased by bacterial infection of the urinary tract. PROCEDUR 2. Signs of pregnancy (elicited during physical examination) Uterine enlargement . Pelvic examination (before 12 weeks) Abdominal examination (from 12 weeks) Presence of . fetal heart sounds. Detected by Doppler ultrasound from 10-12 weeks. Detected by fetoscope from 17-20 weeks. Photo by Karen Kasmauski. Physical Examination Of Urine . For Accurate Evaluation Of Color And PPT. Presentation Summary : Physical Examination of Urine . For accurate evaluation of color and appearance

PPT - PHYSICAL EXAMINATION OF URINE PowerPoint

Microscopic examination will determine which is present. 8 Chemical Analysis. 9 Chemical Analysis. Urine Dipstick. 10 The Urine Dipstick. Glucose. Chemical Principle. Glucose Oxidase. Glucose 2 H2O O2 ---gt Gluconic Acid 2 H2O2. Horseradish Peroxidase. 3 H2O2 KI ---gt KIO3 3 H2O. Read at 30 seconds RR Negative. 11. Uses and Limitations of Urine. To finish the examination, stand back from the patient and state to the examiner that to complete your examination, you would like to perform: Blood pressure readings (lying and sitting/standing) in both arms; Digital Rectal Examination (to assess the prostate) Urine dipstick; Fundoscopy (for any evidence diabetic or hypertensive retinopathy Respirations are 32/min. Physical examination shows urine-like odor of the breath and 2+ pitting edema. Estimated glomerular filtration rate, calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation, is 14 mL/min/1.73 m2. Additional studies in this patient ar

Objectives - Urine Examinations Discuss the importance of urinalysis in confirming a diagnosis Describe the steps for collecting urine from livestock and small animals Describe the steps in physical examinations of urine Describe chemical examination of urine Describe the steps in microscopic examination of urine Perform physical, chemical and microscopi Urinary retention is the acute or chronic inability to voluntarily pass an adequate amount of urine. The condition predominantly affects men. The most common causes are obstructive in nature, with. PHYSICAL EXAMINATION Hypertension, especially if new, may be a sign of renal disease. Petechiae, arthritis, mono-neuritis multiplex, and rash suggest coagulopa - thy, immunologic disease, or vasculitis. Hearing should be evaluated if Alport syn-drome is suspected (see below). Examination of the prostate and urethral meatus is part of

This forms thick blue ppt. o Phenol test : Used to test the presence of phenol based compounds present in urine . Examination:Mixing the given urine soln. with neutral FeCl3. A light violet colouring is observed . o Amine test: This test is used to detect the type of amino group that is excreted through urine The physical examination should include the following: Shidham G, et al. Random spot urine protein/creatinine ratio is unreliable for estimating 24-Hour proteinuria in individual systemic lupus erythematosus nephritis patients. Nephron Clin Pract. 2009 Aug 12. 113(3):c177-c182. physical examination of child ppt / physical examination of stool / physical examination of urine / physical examination of abdomen / physical examination of newborn / physical examination of respiratory system / physical examination of pneumonia / physical examination of patient / school bus license practice test / the biggest test in the universe activities / civil engineering aptitude test. Physical Exam Techniques Inspection & Auscultation Physical exam techniques used in a focused endocrine assessment are the same techniques used in a general exam: • Inspection • Auscultation • Percussion • Palpation During inspection, you are looking for conditions you can observe with your eyes, ears or nose. Examples of what t Microscopic examination of a clear urine that produces a pink precipitate after refrigeration will show: A. Amorphous urates B. Porphyrins C. Red blood cells D. Triple phosphate crystals: 10. Under what conditions will a port-wine urine color be observed in a urine specimen? A. The patient has eaten Clorets. B. Melanin is present

Urine analysis - SlideShar

PPT - Microscopic Examination of Urine PowerPoint

physical examination and health assessment / physical examination ppt / physical examination format / physical examination of urine / physical examination definition / physical examination steps / physical examination pdf / 2004 ap euro essay examples / organic chemistry final exam questions with answers / criminal law exam questions and. physical examination of stool / physical examination of urine / physical examination of child ppt / physical examination of abdomen / physical examination of patient / physical examination of newborn / physical examination of pneumonia / physical examination of respiratory system / mechanical engineering questions and answers for interview / servsafe practice test answer key / ri boating. Physical parameters: Normal urine is a clear yellow colour due to the presence of uribilin. Abnormal urine may be dark orange, red or brown and cloudy in appearance. This can be due to the presence of red and/or white blood cells or pigments and may indicate a urinary tract or renal infection or disease, liver or gall bladder disease Urinalysis : Chemical Examination and Interpretation. A urinalysis is a group of physical, chemical, and microscopic tests performed on urine. The tests detect and/or measure several substances in the urine, such as byproducts of normal and abnormal metabolism, cells, cellular fragments, and bacteria. Urine is produced by the kidneys

-Foul smelling urine ; Physical examination - Left costovertebral angle tenderness ; Urinalysis -Notable for gt50 WBC/ high power field, 3-10RBC/ high power field, and 3 bacteria -Urinary culture was positive for gt100,000 CFU of an org/ml ; 4 Case Summary. gt50 WBC -Pyuria refers to the presence of abnormal numbers of leukocytes that may. Clinical urine tests are examinations of the physical and chemical properties of urine and its microscopic appearance to aid in medical diagnosis. The term urinalysis—a blend of the words urine and analysis—generally refers to the gross examination of the urine... PPT - Basic Examination of the Urine Specimen PowerPoint.. Diabetic nephropathy is a clinical syndrome characterized by the following: Persistent albuminuria (>300 mg/d or >200 μg/min) that is confirmed on at least 2 occasions 3-6 months apart Progressive decline in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) Elevated arterial blood pressure (see Workup) Proteinuria was first recognized in diabetes mellit..

Ppt Physical-examination-of-urine Powerpoint

Asthma is sometimes referred to as reactive airway disease or bronchial asthma. Physical examination - auscultation of wheeze, inspection of ear, nose, throat and airways, looking for any chest retractions or signs of cyanosis, checking for respiratory rate and oxygen saturation levels. 2.4 Acute bacterial prostatitis is an acute infection of the prostate gland that causes urinary tract symptoms and pelvic pain in men.1 It is estimated to comprise up to 10% of all prostatitis. Physical Exam. A physical exam may help diagnose childhood nephrotic syndrome. During a physical exam, a health care provider most often. examines a child's body; taps on specific areas of the child's body; Urine Tests. A health care provider may order the following urine tests to help determine if a child has kidney damage from childhood.

The chemical examination of urine is most commonly carried out in the surgery or outpatient clinic, by a nurse, using commercially prepared test strips. These are narrow plastic strips that hold test pads, arranged in a row. The test pads have chemicals in them. When a strip is briefly, but completely, dipped into urine, the test pads absorb. Visual exam. A lab technician examines the urine's appearance. Urine is typically clear. Cloudiness or an unusual odor may indicate a problem, such as an infection. Blood in the urine may make it look red or brown. Urine color can be influenced by what you've just eaten. For example, beets or rhubarb may add a red tint to your urine. Dipstick tes Acute kidney injury (AKI), previously known as acute renal failure (ARF), is an acute decline in kidney function, leading to a rise in serum creatinine and/or a fall in urine output. Kidney disease: improving global outcomes (KDIGO) Acute Kidney Injury Work Group. KDIGO clinical practice guideline for acute kidney injury

Physical Examination Of Urine Ppt - exampapersnow

PPT - Chemical Examination of Urine PowerPoint

•Physical -palpable bladder, SP pain, DRE, vaginal exam, neuro exam •PVR -scan vs catheterized •Labs -BUN/Cr, UA/Ucx, eval for prior PSA value •Imaging -RBUS if renal failure •Differential -Functional classification -BOO vs DU vs combinatio Urinalysis: Collection, Preservation and Physical Examination. Urine is an ultra-filtrate of plasma from which substances essential to the body are reabsorbed and through which those substances not needed are excreted. The nature and amount of substances present in urine reflect ongoing physiological processes in health and disease states That is why the diagnosis of pathologies based on clinical examination of the urine. Diagnostic importance of studying the physico-chemical properties of urine, establish the level of inorganic and organic (nitrogenous and nitrogen-free) compounds, the determination of the presence of various components in the urine of healthy humans

Physical Examination of Urine - BIOSCIENC

  1. URINE EXAMINATION, ROUTINE; URINE R/E (Automated Strip Test, Microscopy) Physical Color Specific gravity pH Chemical Proteins Glucose Ketones Bilirubin Urobilinogen Leukocyte esterase Nitrite Microscopy RBC Pus cells Epithelial cells Casts Crystals Others-----Pale yellow 1.001-1.030 5.0-8.0 Nil Nil Nil Nil Normal Negative Negative Negative 0-5.
  2. ation of Urine __ ls __ le __ ll 5 LEARNING OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this chapter, the reader will be able to: 1 Describe the proper technique for perfor
  3. ation of urine. CHAPTER 4. Learning Objectives. Upon completing this chapter, the reader will be able to List the common ter
  4. ation of urine is a valuable diagnostic tool for the detection and evaluation of renal and urinary tract disorders and other systemic diseases. For microscopic exa
  5. ation in a refrigerator or a small piece of camphor or thymol is added. Other preservatives include 2% toluene and formaline. For microscopic exa
  6. ation Volume. Normal volume of an early morning mid-stream sample is 50 - 300ml. If it is more than 500ml, it indicates diabetes or polyuria (frequent passing of urine). If it is less than 20ml, it indicates some kidney disorder. Color. The normal color of urine is pale yellow

Urine Physical Examination, and Interpretation - Labpedia

physical examination format physical examination definition physical examination of urine physical examination pdf physical examination and health assessment physical examination steps physical examination ppt escape room prison break answers part 2 / english provincial past exams / bihar board examination class 10th / funny ways to answer text. P rocedure for the microscopic examination of faecal samples for parasites 1. place a drop of saline a clean slide. 2. place a small piece of stool on the slide and mix with saline, cover with a cover slip. If the specimen contain mucus, the examination prefer to be done without saline. The mucus is put on the slide and covered with cover slip MLAB 1311: Urinalysis and Body Fluids. An introduction to the study of urine and body fluid analysis. Includes the anatomy and physiology of the kidney, physical, chemical and microscopic examination of urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and other body fluids as well as quality control, quality assurance and safety

Physical examination of urine — Vet Nursing Educatio

  1. ation and urine culture are performed: pyuria, hematuria, bacteriuria • Blood cultures are drawn • Patient is admitted to the hospital for IV antibiotics and pain managemen
  2. ation Urine R/M. UNISEX. All age groups. negative. Price for Complete Urine Exa
  3. Materials protected by copyright Endocrine - Pertaining to a gland that secretes directly into the bloodstream. Erythropoietin - A cytokine made by the kidneys that stimulates the proliferation of red blood cells. Extracellular fluid - Fluid outside the cell. Gastritis - Chronic or acute inflammation of the stomach, especially of the mucous membrane of the stomach
  4. ation Techniques. Classic physical assessment involves inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation, generally performed in that order (174). Vita
  5. ation are not highly sensitive methods for early diagnosis, but knowledge of the characteristic findings of a normal pregnancy can be helpful in alerting the clinician to the possibility of an abnormal pregnancy, such as ectopic pregnancy, or the presence of coexistent disorders. An impending miscarriage or ectopic.

24 sample urine sample - quantitative estimation of proteins, sugars, electrolytes, and hormones Mid stream urine specimen Clean catch urine PHYSICAL EXAMINATION Volume - Normal -- 1.2-2 L /day. The day is 3-4 times > night. Night is < 400 ml. Polyuria >3000ml / day. Oliguria <400ml / day 2. Urine Specimen Types, Collection, and Preservation 3. The Kidney 4. Renal Function 5. Physical Examination of Urine 6. Chemical Examination of Urine 7. Microscopic Examination of Urine Sediment Urine Sediment Image Gallery 8. Renal and Metabolic Disease 9. Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis 10. Pleural, Pericardial, and Peritoneal Fluid Analysis 11 Microscopic examination of urine is performed on 10 mL of a midstream, clean-catch specimen that has been centrifuged for 10 minutes at 2000 rpm or for 5 minutes at 3000 rpm. The sediment is resuspended and examined under high power magnification Investigations should focus on identifying serious or reversible causes and should include a detailed history and physical examination, urine dipstick, culture and pelvic ultrasound. Pelvic examination, neurological assessment, urine culture and pelvic ultrasound should be performed on all females with AUR

PPT - Abnormal composition of urine PowerPoint

Physical exam. This should be performed in a comfortable and nonthreatening manner. Children may need to be distracted by parents or guardians in order to obtain an accurate exam. In younger children, localization of the abdominal pain may be difficult. Urine culture is necessary if urinalysis is suggestive of a UTI

Physical Examination Of Urine - getexamen

describe all the components for completing the physical examination for urinary incontinence (for speaker's notes please refer to the ppt file) Overview of Urinary Incontinence (UI) in the genital exam in men)Observe urine loss by having patient coug Composition of Urine: A. Volume: 1. A normal adult excretes daily from 1000 ml to 1800 ml of urine. The average is 1500 ml containing 60 gm. of solids. ADVERTISEMENTS: 2. The quantity depends on the water intake, external temperature, the diet and the in­dividual's mental and physical condition. 3 medical history and physical examination. The clinical diag-nosis should be supported by an appropriate imaging proce-dure. Recommendation LE GR In patients with fever or a solitary kidney, and when the diagnosis of stone is in doubt, immediate imaging is indicated. 4 A* *Upgraded following panel consensus Physical examination Examination begins with review of vital signs, particularly to note the presence of fever. Skin, mucosa, and joints are examined for lesions suggesting reactive arthritis (eg, conjunctivitis, oral ulcers, vesicular or crusting lesions of palms, soles, and around nails, joint tenderness)

The physical examination component of the newborn assessment is the most important screen for major occult congenital anomalies. There is no optimal time to detect all abnormalities. 6. Moss et al. 7. found 8.8% of newborns had an abnormality on the first detailed examination with an additional 4.4% having abnormalities onl This test is performed as part of the annual physical examination, assessment prior to surgery or hospital admission and screening for any potential kidney problem [3]. Further Examination When a patient complains of symptoms such as painful urination, abdominal and flank pain, fever or presence of blood in the urine, a urinalysis will be. Urine smell indicates age of the urine and may indicate the prescence of glucose and ketones. Urine turbidity may indicate urinary tract infection or obstruction. Urinalysis is the process of analyzing and detecting chemicals excreted in urine. Physical characteristics of urine include color, smell, pH, density and turbidity; Key Term

Microscopic Examination Of Urine Ppt - Exam Key 202

The physical examination in Dengue fever should be directed toward identifying warning signs that the patient has or may develop severe disease warranting in-hospital observation and/or intensive treatment. These warning signs include tachycardia, postural hypotension, a narrow pulse pressure (<20 mm Hg) and / or frank hypotension could. Hematuria: Stents can cause blood to appear in the urine at various times. Usually, physical activity of one kind or other results in movement of the stent inside the body. This can give rise to blood in the urine. Pain may be felt in the back (loin), bladder area, groin, penis in men or urethra in women, and sometimes the testicles Each urine specimen was examined by 1 experienced technician (VK). Automated Urine Analyzers UX-2000. The UX-2000 has 2 component analyzers in a single platform, namely, a chemical component for analyzing the physical and chemical parts of urine and a flow cytometry component for microscopic examination of sediments On physical examination, his temperature is 37.4°C. A chest radiograph shows bilateral, scattered, 0.3- to 2-cm nodules in the upper lobes and hilar adenopathy. A fine needle aspirate of one of the nodules shows inflammation with mononuclear cells, including macrophages that, with PAS or silver stains, show intracellular, 2- to 5-um, rounded. Proteinuria is diagnosed through a urine test. The patient provides a urine sample, which is examined in a lab. Doctors use a dipstick - a thin plastic stick with chemicals on the tip - to test part of the sample right away. If too much of any substance is in the urine, the chemical tip changes color

(PDF) Collection & Preservation of Urine magendira mani

  1. ation is a routine test your primary care provider (PCP) performs to check your overall health. A PCP may be a doctor, a nurse practitioner, or a physician assistant. The exam is.
  2. ation (H&P is valid for 30 days before surgery. Any H&P more than 7 days but less than 30 days' old requires an updated note by the surgeon. The surgeon's office will be notified 2 business days prior to surgery if the H&P is missing
  3. A health care professional may perform a digital rectal exam on a man to look for any prostate problems. A health care professional may perform a pelvic exam on a woman to look for the source of possible red blood cells in the urine. Digital rectal exam. A digital rectal exam is a physical exam of a man's prostate and rectum
  4. ation findings in BPH and cancer often overlap
  5. In the United States, colorectal cancer is most common in adults aged 65-74. Rates of new colorectal cancer cases are decreasing among adults aged 50 years or older due to an increase in screening and to changes in some risk factors (for example, a decline in smoking) ().However, incidence is increasing among younger adults (1 - 3) for reasons that are not known
Chemical examination of urine

The physical exam typically shows a distressed patient, often writhing and constantly moving while trying to find a comfortable position. In contrast, patients with an acute abdomen typically have board-like abdominal rigidity and do not wish to move at all. Costovertebral angle or lower quadrant tenderness may be present. Low Urine Volume.

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